An integral part of global environment change is an increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) . Increased [CO2] reduces leaf stomatal apertures and density of stomata that plays out as reductions in evapotranspiration [2-4]. Surprisingly, given the importance of transpiration to the control of terrestrial water fluxes  and plant nutrient acquisition , we know comparatively little about the molecular components involved in the intracellular signaling pathways by which [CO2] controls stomatal development and function . Here, we report that elevated [CO2]-induced closure and reductions in stomatal density require the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby adding a new common element to these signaling pathways. We also show that the PYR/RCAR family of ABA receptors [8, 9] and ABA itself are required in both responses. Using genetic approaches, we show that ABA in guard cells or their precursors is sufficient to mediate the [CO2]-induced stomatal density response. Taken together, our results suggest that stomatal responses to increased [CO2] operate through the intermediacy of ABA. In the case of [CO2]-induced reductions in stomatal aperture, this occurs by accessing the guard cell ABA signaling pathway. In both [CO2]-mediated responses, our data are consistent with a mechanism in which ABA increases the sensitivity of the system to [CO2] but could also be explained by requirement for a CO2-induced increase in ABA biosynthesis specifically in the guard cell lineage. Furthermore, the dependency of stomatal [CO2] signaling on ABA suggests that the ABA pathway is, in evolutionary terms, likely to be ancestral.
Keywords: ABA receptors; ABA signaling; NADPH oxidases; ROS; Rboh genes; [CO(2)] signaling; guard cells; signaling convergence; stomata; stomatal closure; stomatal density.
Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.