Comparative Study of Laparoscopic Abdominopelvic and Fallopian Tube Findings Before and After Antitubercular Therapy in Female Genital Tuberculosis With Infertility

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2016 Feb 1;23(2):215-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jmig.2015.09.023. Epub 2015 Oct 8.


Study objective: To study the effect of antitubercular treatment (ATT) on the laparoscopic abdominopelvic and fallopian tube findings in female genital tuberculosis (FGBT).

Design: Prospective cohort (Canadian Task Force classification II2).

Setting: Tertiary referral center in northern India.

Patients: Fifty women with infertility and diagnosed with FGTB on laparoscopy, histopathology findings, or endometrial sampling (acid-fast bacilli culture, granuloma on histopathology, positive polymerase chain reaction).

Interventions: Diagnostic laparoscopy in all women diagnosed with FGTB before and after a 6-month course of ATT (2 months of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, followed by 4 months of rifampicin and isoniazid). All procedures were performed by the same surgeon between June 2012 and May 2014.

Measurements and main results: The mean patient age was 28.7 years, mean parity was 0.9, and mean body mass index was 23.6 kg/m(2). Infertility was seen in all 50 women (66% primary infertility, 34% secondary infertility), with a mean duration of 6.06 years. Abnormal laparoscopic findings of FGTB included tubercles in the pelvic peritoneum, fallopian tube, and ovary in 27 women (54%) before ATT and in only 1 (2.04%) woman after ATT (p < .001). Caseous nodules and encysted ascites were seen in 4 women (8%) before ATT, and in no women after ATT (p < .001); however, there was no change from before ATT to after ATT in the rate of pelvic adhesions (42% vs 42.5%) and perihepatic adhesions (56% vs 58%). Laparoscopic findings in fallopian tubes included hydrosalpinx (32%), pyosalpinx (4%), beaded tubes (12%), nonvisualization of tube (20%), and tubal blockage on the right side (56%), left side (50%), and both sides (38%) before ATT. Hydrosalpinx, beaded tubes, and nonvisualized tube were seen in 33.4%, 4.1%, and 20.8% cases, respectively, after ATT; however, free spill increased to 52% on the right side and 50% on left side after ATT.

Conclusion: ATT improves laparoscopic findings in FGTB with infertility. However, advanced fibrotic lesions (eg, pelvic and perihepatic adhesions, bilateral blocked tubes) do not improve with ATT.

Keywords: Antitubercular therapy; Female genital tuberculosis; Infertility; Laparoscopy findings; Polymerase chain reaction.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Fallopian Tube Diseases / complications
  • Fallopian Tube Diseases / drug therapy
  • Fallopian Tube Diseases / pathology*
  • Fallopian Tubes / pathology*
  • Fallopian Tubes / virology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India
  • Infertility, Female / drug therapy
  • Infertility, Female / etiology
  • Infertility, Female / pathology*
  • Laparoscopy*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tissue Adhesions / complications
  • Tissue Adhesions / drug therapy
  • Tissue Adhesions / pathology*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tuberculosis, Female Genital / complications
  • Tuberculosis, Female Genital / drug therapy
  • Tuberculosis, Female Genital / pathology*


  • Antitubercular Agents