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Review
, 12 (1), 1-12

[The Single Intercostal Block--Surgical and Therapeutic Indications]

[Article in German]
Affiliations
  • PMID: 2645621
Review

[The Single Intercostal Block--Surgical and Therapeutic Indications]

[Article in German]
H C Niesel et al. Reg Anaesth.

Abstract

Since the first paravertebral blockade was carried out by Sellheim in 1905, this method has proved effective for the isolated blockade of spinal nerves. The efficacy of preoperative intercostal blockade (ICB) in combination with neuroleptanalgesia (NLA) or Pentothal-pentazocine-N2O anesthesia (Pe-Pz) was studied (unilateral analgesia for cholecystectomy). Group 1: NLA; group 2: NLA with ICB; group 3: Pe-Pz; group 4: Pe-Pz with ICB. The analgesic requirement differed significantly between groups 1 (0.33 mg fentanyl) and 2 (0.15 mg fentanyl) and groups 3 (63.5 mg pentazocine) and 4 (31.5 mg pentazocine). There were also significant differences in circulatory responses. The maximum deviation from the initial value at the beginning of the operation in group 1 compared to group 2 was pulse rate + 28.7% vs + 2.4%, mean arterial pressure (Part) + 24.6% vs + 3.1%, and systolic pressure (Psyst) + 33% vs +/- 0%; group 3 compared to group 4: pulse rate + 16.4% vs + 3.2%, Part + 24.5% vs 0.0%, and Psyst + 26.5% vs + 196. The times of action of ICB extended from 7.54 h to 11.33 h for partial analgeisa, time to the first dose of analgesic from 12.3 h to 16.9 h (etidocaine 0.5% and 1% respectively without and with epinephrine). The mean blood levels after 100 mg bupivacaine-CO2 rose to 1.16 micrograms/ml after 5 min and reached a maximum after 15 min (1.29 micrograms/ml) as compared to 0.98 micrograms/ml after addition of ornithine-vasopressin. These values are very much higher than those after the use of bupivacaine-HCl solution. Etidocaine and bupivacaine-HCl have comparable durations of analgesia. Toxicologically, both substances can be applied safely with consideration of all pharmacological data for ICB. Of a total of 3,485 intercostal blockades, 2,775 were applied perioperatively (pre- and postoperatively); 265 were carried out for trauma patients (rib fractures) and 445 for therapeutic indications (herpes zoster neuralgia, tumor pain, costovertebral pain). In 8 blocks 10% ammonium sulfate, in 4 blocks absolute alcohol, and in 19 blocks 5% phenol were used for neurolysis. In 2 cases a marginal pneumothorax was seen, which was resorbed spontaneously (0.06%). Altogether 16,270 single intercostal nerves were blocked. Single-session intercostal blockade can be combined as unilateral analgesia with general anesthesia. This combination is characterized by stable circulatory conditions with avoidance of hypertensive reactions. The long-lasting analgesia allows early mobilization and physiotherapy both postoperatively and posttraumatically in patients with unilateral thoracic and abdominal pain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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