Introduction: Mitochondria form an interconnected and dynamic web that undergoes continuous cycles of fusion and fission events. This phenomenon, known as mitochondrial dynamics, represents a key quality control system to maintain a healthy mitochondrial population but also a mechanism to bioenergetically adapt to the cellular and tissue energetic demands. Consequently, mitochondria can be viewed not only as energy supply organelles but also as energy sensors. It is therefore not surprising that disrupted mitochondrial bioenergetics, concomitantly with alterations in mitochondrial architecture, has been associated with several diseases including metabolic disorders.
Conclusion: Here, we review current evidences connecting mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetic alterations with the development of obesity and diabetes-related phenotypes, and how current strategies to alleviate such phenotypes impact on mitochondrial network and function.
Keywords: Energy metabolism; Type 2 diabetes; fission; fusion; glucose homeostasis; mitochondria; mitochondrial dynamics; obesity.
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