Trouble Sleeping Associated With Lower Work Performance and Greater Health Care Costs: Longitudinal Data From Kansas State Employee Wellness Program

J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Oct;57(10):1031-8. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000534.


Objective: To examine the relationships between employees' trouble sleeping and absenteeism, work performance, and health care expenditures over a 2-year period.

Methods: Utilizing the Kansas State employee wellness program (EWP) data set from 2008 to 2009, multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with trouble sleeping as the predictor and absenteeism, work performance, and health care costs as the outcomes.

Results: EWP participants (N = 11,698 in 2008; 5636 followed up in 2009) who had higher levels of sleep disturbance were more likely to be absent from work (all P < 0.0005), have lower work performance ratings (all P < 0.0005), and have higher health care costs (P < 0.0005). Longitudinally, more trouble sleeping was significantly related to negative changes in all outcomes.

Conclusions: Employees' trouble sleeping, even at a subclinical level, negatively impacts on work attendance, work performance, and health care costs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Absenteeism*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Promotion / economics
  • Humans
  • Kansas
  • Linear Models
  • Logistic Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Health / economics
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Self Report
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / economics*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / psychology
  • Work Performance / statistics & numerical data*