The Application of Nano-Sized Zero-Valent Iron for In Situ Remediation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Groundwater: A Field Case Study

Water Environ Res. 2015 Apr;87(4):326-33. doi: 10.2175/106143015X14212658613596.


In this paper, the authors present the pilot in situ application of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) for effective remediation of groundwater in an industrial area contaminated by chlorinated ethylenes (CEs), which create a significant group of global environmental contaminants. This work covers the entire 1-year remediation process, including systematic laboratory tests and field application techniques for nZVI. The application was carried out in the area of a metal fabrication industrial facility in the Czech Republic. Contamination of CEs in this area is a consequence of old ecological loads. The entire remediation process contained the following steps: monitoring of the area, selection of the most relevant hot spot, selection of the most appropriate application borehole, systematic laboratory tests, application of nZVI, and postapplication monitoring. Ten kilograms of nZVI were applied as a water suspension into the selected borehole. Significant decreases in concentrations of selected contaminants were observed in the first month after application. The reaction in the borehole was completed within approximately 5 to 6 months after the application and during this period almost 50% elimination of contamination was achieved.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Restoration and Remediation / methods*
  • Ethylenes / chemistry*
  • Ethylenes / isolation & purification*
  • Groundwater / chemistry*
  • Halogenation*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Iron / chemistry*
  • Metal Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / chemistry


  • Ethylenes
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Iron