Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women

PLoS One. 2015 Oct 14;10(10):e0140376. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140376. eCollection 2015.


During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG) in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), large for gestational age (LGA) infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS). The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese), based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA) infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes and that proper preemptive management of early weight gain, particularly in pregnant women with a normal or obese pre-pregnancy BMI, is necessary to reduce the risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Birth Weight
  • Body Mass Index
  • Delivery, Obstetric
  • Diabetes, Gestational / epidemiology
  • Diabetes, Gestational / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / epidemiology
  • Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / physiopathology*
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / physiopathology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy Complications / physiopathology
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Premature Birth / epidemiology
  • Premature Birth / physiopathology
  • Republic of Korea
  • Risk Factors
  • Weight Gain*

Grant support

The authors received no specific funding for this work.