Background: Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. In case of insulin resistance, which is typical for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), proteolysis is increased and protein synthesis is decreased; therefore, we can observe changes in the levels of amino acids in diabetics vs. non-diabetics.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to find differences in the levels of selected amino acids between patients with diabetes (type 2) and a control group.
Material and methods: Amino acids were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde in the presence of potassium cyanide to form fluorescent 1-cyanobenz(f)isoindole product. Amino acids derivatives were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The serum levels of glucose were determined using an automatic biochemistry analyzer, glycated hemoglobin HbA1c was measured by cation exchange chromatography.
Results: A total of 19 serum amino acids in T2DM patients and non-diabetics were measured. There were 9 amino acids, which were significantly different in these groups (p<0.05). Significantly decreased levels of arginine, asparagine, glycine, serine, threonine and significantly increased levels of alanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine in diabetics were found.
Conclusions: Significant difference in metabolism of amino acids between diabetics and non-diabetics were observed. The altered levels of amino acids in diabetic patients could be a suitable predictor of diabetes.