Drug-induced nephrotoxicity are more common among infants and young children and in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Drugs can cause acute renal injury, intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders. Certain drugs can cause alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease and renal scarring. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity tends to occur more frequently in patients with intravascular volume depletion, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and sepsis. Therefore, early detection of drugs adverse effects is important to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Preventive measures requires knowledge of mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, understanding patients and drug-related risk factors coupled with therapeutic intervention by correcting risk factors, assessing baseline renal function before initiation of therapy, adjusting the drug dosage and avoiding use of nephrotoxic drug combinations.
Keywords: Acute tubular necrosis; Drugs nephrotoxicity; Hypersensitivity angeitis; Interstitial nephritis; Thrombotic microangiopathy; Tubular obstruction.