Ovarian Hyperstimulation Caused by Gonadotroph Pituitary Adenoma--Review

Adv Clin Exp Med. 2015 Jul-Aug;24(4):695-703. doi: 10.17219/acem/25212.

Abstract

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) occurs mostly as an iatrogenic complication of assisted reproductive technology. Gonadotroph pituitary adenomas are rarely associated with OHSS. To the authors' knowledge, to date only 30 cases of spontaneous ovarian stimulation associated with gonadotroph adenomas have been reported in women and only 2 in children. The most common symptoms in such cases included menstrual disturbances, abdominal or pelvic pain, abdominal distension and increased girth. Galactorrhea, nausea and vomiting were also reported. Neurological symptoms occurred when the size of the pituitary tumor reached at least 20 mm. Transvaginal ultrasound examination usually demonstrated enlarged multicystic ovaries. MRIs of the pituitary revealed macroadenomas up to 61 mm in maximum diameter. The hormonal profiles of the reported cases showed normal or elevated FSH levels, suppressed LH levels, elevated estradiol levels and supranormal concentrations of prolactin. Transsphenoidal surgery is the therapy of choice, however other treatment modalities can be utilized in selected cases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Female
  • Gonadotrophs / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome / blood
  • Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome / etiology*
  • Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Ovary / metabolism
  • Ovary / physiopathology*
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / blood
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / complications*
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Tumor Burden
  • Young Adult