We explored system [Formula: see text] transporter activity and the detection of inflammatory or infectious lesions using (4S)-4-(3-(18)F-fluoropropyl)-l-glutamate ((18)F-FSPG) PET.
Methods: In 10 patients with various inflammatory or infectious diseases, as many as 5 of the largest lesions were selected as reference lesions. (18)F-FSPG images were assessed visually and quantitatively. Expression levels of xCT, CD44, and surface markers of inflammatory cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
Results: (18)F-FSPG PET detected all reference lesions. (18)F-FSPG uptake in sarcoidosis was significantly higher than that in nonsarcoidosis. The lesion-to-blood-pool SUV ratio for (18)F-FSPG was comparable to that for (18)F-FDG in sarcoidosis. In nonsarcoidosis, however, it was significantly lower. In 5 patients with available tissue samples, the SUVmax for (18)F-FSPG and CD163 were negatively correlated (ρ = -0.872, P = 0.054).
Conclusion: (18)F-FSPG PET may detect inflammatory lesions when activated macrophages or monocytes are present, such as in sarcoidosis.
Keywords: glutamate; infection; inflammation; positron emission tomography; xC− transporter.
© 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.