How leukocytes cross the vascular endothelium

Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Nov;15(11):692-704. doi: 10.1038/nri3908. Epub 2015 Oct 16.


Immune responses depend on the ability of leukocytes to move from the circulation into tissue. This is enabled by mechanisms that guide leukocytes to the right exit sites and allow them to cross the barrier of the blood vessel wall. This process is regulated by a concerted action between endothelial cells and leukocytes, whereby endothelial cells activate leukocytes and direct them to extravasation sites, and leukocytes in turn instruct endothelial cells to open a path for transmigration. This Review focuses on recently described mechanisms that control and open exit routes for leukocytes through the endothelial barrier.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • 12E7 Antigen
  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD / physiology
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology
  • Cell Movement
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Integrins / physiology
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / physiology
  • Leukocytes / physiology*


  • 12E7 Antigen
  • Antigens, CD
  • CD99 protein, human
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Integrins
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1