Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from the autoimmune and inflammatory destruction of insulin-producing islet β cells, rendering individuals devoid of insulin production. Recent studies suggest that combination therapies consisting of anti-inflammatory agents and islet growth-promoting factors have the potential to cause sustained recovery of β cell mass, leading to amelioration or reversal of type 1 diabetes in mouse models. In this study, we hypothesized that the combination of the anti-inflammatory agent lisofylline (LSF) with an active peptide fragment of islet neogenesis associated protein (INGAP peptide) would lead to remission of type 1 diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. We treated groups of spontaneously diabetic NOD mice with combinations of LSF, INGAP peptide, or control saline parenterally for up to 6 weeks. Our results demonstrate that the mice receiving combined treatment with LSF and INGAP peptide exhibited partial remission of diabetes with increased plasma insulin levels. Histologic assessment of pancreata in mice receiving combined therapy revealed the presence of islet insulin staining, increased β cell replication, and evidence of Pdx1-positivity in ductal cells. By contrast, diabetic animals showed severe insulitis with no detectible insulin or Pdx1 staining. We conclude that the novel combination treatment with LSF and INGAP peptide has the potential to ameliorate hyperglycemia in the setting of established type 1 diabetes via the recovery of endogenous β cells and warrant further studies.
Keywords: INGAP; Insulin; Lisofylline; Non-Obese Diabetic Mice; Type 1 Diabetes.