Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Initial Experience in Patients With Early Arthritis

Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Mar;68(3):587-96. doi: 10.1002/art.39469.


Objective: Analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using pharmacokinetic modeling (PKM) provides quantitative measures that mirror microvessel integrity and can be used as an objective marker of the level of synovial inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the PKM parameters K(trans) , kep , and ve in a prospective cohort of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive patients with early arthritis, and to validate the results by assessing their correlation with the number of synovial endothelial cells (ECs).

Methods: Forty-seven patients with early arthritis (arthritis duration <1 year, DMARD naive; comprising 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 22 with unclassified arthritis, 6 with spondyloarthritis [SpA], and 5 with other arthritides) were included. At baseline, DCE-MRI was performed on an inflamed knee joint of each patient. These images were used to calculate the K(trans) (volume transfer constant between the plasma and extracellular extravascular space [EES]), the kep (transfer constant between the EES and plasma), and the ve (fractional volume of the EES). Second, markers of disease activity were collected. Finally, vascularity was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of synovial tissue samples obtained from the inflamed knee joints, using antibodies to detect von Willebrand factor (vWF), a marker of ECs.

Results: The 3 PKM parameters differed significantly between diagnostic groups at baseline, with the highest K(trans) value being observed in patients with SpA (median 0.050/minute, interquartile range [IQR] 0.041- 0.069). Furthermore, the K(trans) , kep , and ve values correlated significantly with markers of disease activity. Finally, the PKM parameters K(trans) and kep , but not ve , correlated significantly with synovial expression of vWF (r = 0.647, P = 0.004 for K(trans) ; r = 0.614, P = 0.007 for kep ; r = 0.398, P = 0.102 for ve ).

Conclusion: These results suggest that the K(trans) , kep , and ve can be used to detect synovial inflammation in patients with early arthritis, and these PKM parameters may be helpful in differential diagnosis. This approach may also be useful in translational research analyzing tissue microcirculation and angiogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arthritis / diagnosis
  • Arthritis / pathology*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / pathology
  • Biopsy
  • Cohort Studies
  • Endothelial Cells / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammation
  • Knee Joint / pathology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Prospective Studies
  • Spondylarthropathies / pathology
  • Synovial Membrane / chemistry
  • Synovial Membrane / pathology
  • von Willebrand Factor / analysis


  • von Willebrand Factor