Noncontact photoacoustic tomography of in vivo chicken chorioallantoic membrane based on all-fiber heterodyne interferometry

J Biomed Opt. 2015 Oct;20(10):106007. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.10.106007.


We present three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo photoacoustic (PA) images of the blood vasculature of a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) obtained by using a fiber-based noncontact PA tomography system. With a fiber-optic heterodyne interferometer, the system measures the surface displacement of a sample, induced by the PA wave, which overcomes the disadvantage of physical-contact of ultrasonic transducer in a conventional system. The performance of an implemented system is analyzed and its capability of in vivo 3-D bioimaging is presented. At a depth of 2.5 mm in a phantom experiment, the lateral and axial resolutions were measured as 100 and 30 μm, respectively. The lateral resolution became doubled at a depth of 7.0 mm; however, interestingly, the axial resolution was not noticeably deteriorated with the depth. With the CAM experiment, performed under the American National Standards Institute laser safety standard condition, blood vessel structures placed as deep as 3.5 mm were clearly recognized.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chickens
  • Chorioallantoic Membrane / diagnostic imaging*
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Fiber Optic Technology / instrumentation*
  • Image Enhancement / instrumentation
  • Interferometry / instrumentation*
  • Photoacoustic Techniques / instrumentation*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Tomography, Optical / instrumentation*
  • Ultrasonography / instrumentation*