Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in diabetes mellitus

Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015 Oct 17;14:142. doi: 10.1186/s12933-015-0297-x.

Abstract

Although antidiabetic agents have been developed to target one or more of the core defects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), many patients do not achieve glycemic goals. Inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) induces glycosuria, reduces glucose toxicity and improves insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. As the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is different from other agents and completely insulin-independent, the use of these drugs might potentially be efficacious alone or in combination with any other antidiabetic drug, including insulin. Dapagliflozin is a highly selective and reversible SGLT2 inhibitor approved for use in adult patients with T2DM as monotherapy in patients intolerant of metformin or as adjunctive therapy in patients inadequately controlled on existing antidiabetic medications, including insulin. A literature search conducted using PubMed identified key publications related to the use of dapagliflozin in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. No date limits were applied. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of this SGLT2 inhibitor. Dapagliflozin produces dose-related reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as monotherapy and as add-on to other antidiabetic agents, with significant reductions in body weight. Hypoglycemia is uncommon. Preliminary data from a phase 2 pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study suggest that dapagliflozin may also improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Clinical trials published to date show that dapagliflozin is safe and effective as monotherapy or as an add-on to insulin or oral antidiabetic agents in patients with T2DM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds / therapeutic use*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Glucosides / therapeutic use*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / chemically induced
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Glucosides
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human
  • dapagliflozin