We developed an endoscopic echo probe that can be passed via the biopsy channel of a flexible fiberoptic or video endoscope with a 3.5-mm channel. The probe moves along the gastrointestinal wall under direct endoscopic vision. The translational scanning action is sensed by a position potentiometer and combines with the ultrasonic B-mode echoes to produce a cross-sectional image of the wall. The system uses an ultrasound frequency of 20 MHz to produce high-resolution images. The device was used to image canine gastrointestinal tissue in vitro and in vivo during endoscopy. Ultrasound images of the gut wall correlate with histologic structure. This probe overcomes some of the problems associated with the combined ultrasound endoscopes now in use. Use of the probe with video endoscopy allows the endoscopic and ultrasound images to be displayed side by side, simplifying coordination of application of the two techniques.