Effects of acute plasma volume expansion on renal perfusion, filtration, and oxygenation after cardiac surgery: a randomized study on crystalloid vs colloid

Br J Anaesth. 2015 Nov;115(5):736-42. doi: 10.1093/bja/aev346.

Abstract

Background: In the present randomized study, we evaluated the differential effects of a colloid and a crystalloid fluid on renal oxygen delivery (RD(O2)), glomerular filtration (GFR), renal oxygen consumption ((RV(O2))), and the renal oxygen supply-demand relationship (i.e., renal oxygenation) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

Methods: Thirty patients with normal preoperative renal function, undergoing uncomplicated cardiac surgery, were studied in the intensive care unit in the early postoperative period. Patients were randomized to receive a bolus dose of either a crystalloid (Ringers-acetate 20 ml kg(-1), n=15) or a colloid solution (Venofundin) 10 ml kg(-1), n=15). Systemic haemodynamics were measured via a pulmonary artery catheter. Renal blood flow and GFR were measured by the renal vein retrograde thermodilution technique and by renal extraction of 51Cr-EDTA (=filtration fraction). Arterial and renal vein blood samples were obtained for measurements of renal oxygen delivery (RD(O2)) and RV(O2). Renal oxygenation was estimated from the renal oxygen extraction.

Results: Despite an increase in cardiac index and renal blood flow with both fluids, neither of the fluids improved RD(O2), because they both induced haemodilution. The GFR increased in the crystalloid (28%) but not in the colloid group. The crystalloid increased the filtration fraction (24%) and renal oxygen extraction (23%), indicating that the increase in GFR, the major determinant of RV(O2), was not matched by a proportional increase in RD(O2).

Conclusions: Neither the colloid nor the crystalloid improved RD(O2) when used for postoperative plasma volume expansion. The crystalloid-induced increase in GFR was associated with impaired renal oxygenation, which was not seen with the colloid.

Clinical trial registration: NCT01729364.

Keywords: colloids; crystalloids; glomerular filtration rate; plasma volume expansion; postoperative treatment; renal blood flow; renal oxygen consumption and oxygenation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • Colloids / pharmacology*
  • Coronary Artery Bypass*
  • Crystalloid Solutions
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / drug effects
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / physiology
  • Hemodilution / methods
  • Hemodynamics / drug effects
  • Hemodynamics / physiology
  • Humans
  • Isotonic Solutions / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxygen / blood
  • Oxygen Consumption / drug effects
  • Oxygen Consumption / physiology
  • Plasma Substitutes / pharmacology*
  • Postoperative Care / methods
  • Renal Circulation / drug effects*
  • Renal Circulation / physiology

Substances

  • Colloids
  • Crystalloid Solutions
  • Isotonic Solutions
  • Plasma Substitutes
  • Oxygen

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01729364