Background: Evidence from large, randomized, controlled peripheral artery disease trials reporting long-term outcomes using drug-coated balloons (DCBs) is limited. Previously, the DCB showed favorable 1-year outcomes compared with conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), yet durability of the treatment effect with DCBs remains unknown.
Objectives: This study sought to investigate the longer-term outcomes of a paclitaxel-eluting DCB compared to PTA for femoropopliteal lesions.
Methods: We enrolled 331 patients with symptomatic (Rutherford 2 to 4) femoropopliteal lesions up to 18 cm in length. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with DCB or PTA. The 24-month assessments included primary patency, freedom from clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR), major adverse events, and quality of life and functional outcomes as assessed by the EuroQOL-5D quality-of-life questionnaire, walking impairment questionnaire, and 6-min walk test.
Results: At 24 months, patients treated with DCB showed significantly higher primary patency when compared with PTA (78.9% vs. 50.1%; p < 0.001). The rates of CD-TLR were 9.1% and 28.3% (p < 0.001) for the DCB and PTA groups, respectively. The overall mortality rate in the DCB group was 8.1% versus 0.9% in the PTA group (p = 0.008). There were no device- or procedure-related deaths and no major amputations in either group through 24-month follow-up. The rate of vessel thrombosis was low (1.5% DCB vs. 3.8% PTA; p = 0.243), with no new events reported between 1 and 2 years. Both groups showed similar functional improvement at 2 years, although DCB patients achieved this level of function with 58% fewer reinterventions.
Conclusions: The 24-month outcomes from the trial demonstrate a durable and superior treatment effect of DCB versus PTA with significantly higher primary patency, lower CD-TLR, and similar functional status improvement with fewer repeat interventions. (Randomized Trial of IN.PACT Admiral Drug Eluting Balloon vs Standard PTA for the Treatment of SFA and Proximal Popliteal Arterial Disease [INPACT SFA I]; NCT01175850; and IN.PACT Admiral Drug-Coated Balloon vs. Standard Balloon Angioplasty for the Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery [SFA] and Proximal Popliteal Artery [PPA] [INPACT SFA II]; NCT01566461).
Keywords: angioplasty; femoropopliteal artery; peripheral arterial disease; target lesion revascularization.
Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.