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Review
. 2015 Nov;40(3):828-46.
doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2015.09.016. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Arsenic and Human Health Effects: A Review

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Review

Arsenic and Human Health Effects: A Review

Khaja Shameem Mohammed Abdul et al. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. .

Abstract

Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

Keywords: Arsenic; Environmental exposure; Epigenesis; Neoplasms; Organs at risk; Toxicity.

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