Exercise and Regulation of Adipokine and Myokine Production

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;135:313-36. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.07.002. Epub 2015 Jul 31.


Skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue are the largest organs in the human body and both tissues act as endocrine organs capable of secreting many bioactive molecules. There has been some confusion about nomenclature and we suggest that the name myokine should be restricted to a protein or molecule secreted from myocytes, whereas the term adipokine should be used to describe proteins and molecules secreted from adipocytes. In fact, many myokines are also produced by adipocytes and we propose to name them adipo-myokines. Many adipo-myokines produced by skeletal muscle or adipose tissue are influenced by exercise. Therefore, it is likely that adipo-myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise and physical inactivity probably leads to an altered adipo-myokine profile, which could provide a potential mechanism for the association between sedentary behavior and many chronic diseases. Within this review, we evaluate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on myokine, adipokine, and adipo-myokine production. By using the adipo-myokine concept and including both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, an attempt is made to gain a global view on the beneficial effects of different exercise programs and the underlying pathways.

Keywords: Adipo-myokines; Adipokines; Adipose tissue; Exercise; Myokines; Skeletal muscle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipokines / biosynthesis*
  • Animals
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*


  • Adipokines
  • Cytokines