Modification of appetite by bread consumption: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Sep 22;57(14):3035-3050. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2015.1084490.


The inclusion of different ingredients or the use of different baking technologies may modify the satiety response to bread, and aid in the control of food intake. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic search of randomized clinical trials on the effect of bread consumption on appetite ratings in humans. The search equation was ("Bread"[MeSH]) AND ("Satiation"[MeSH] OR "Satiety response"[MeSH]), and the filter "clinical trials." As a result of this procedure, 37 publications were selected. The satiety response was considered as the primary outcome. The studies were classified as follows: breads differing in their flour composition, breads differing in ingredients other than flours, breads with added organic acids, or breads made using different baking technologies. In addition, we have revised the data related to the influence of bread on glycemic index, insulinemic index and postprandial gastrointestinal hormones responses. The inclusion of appropriate ingredients such as fiber, proteins, legumes, seaweeds and acids into breads and the use of specific technologies may result in the development of healthier breads that increase satiety and satiation, which may aid in the control of weight gain and benefit postprandial glycemia. However, more well-designed randomized control trials are required to reach final conclusions.

Keywords: Bread; energy intake; gastrointestinal hormones; obesity; satiation; satiety response.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Appetite*
  • Bread*
  • Energy Intake
  • Glycemic Index
  • Humans
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Satiation