Serum concentrations of chemokines (CCL-5 and CXCL-12), chemokine receptors (CCR-5 and CXCR-4), and IL-6 in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and avoidant personality disorder

Pharmacol Rep. 2015 Dec;67(6):1251-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2015.05.023. Epub 2015 Jun 6.


Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be perceived as a psychoneuroimmunological disorder in which cytokines affecting the neurochemical and neuroendocrine functions of the body play an important role. Among cytokines, chemokines participating in activation of the inflammatory response are considered to be crucial.

Method: 220 men and women were enrolled in the study. 180 of them constituted the study group. The studied groups consisted of: 60 patients with a diagnosed avoidant personality disorders (APD), 60 patients with a diagnosed APD and with PTSD and of 60 patients with PTSD but without a APD. There were 30 women and 30 men in each group of 60 subjects. The control group consisted of 40 healthy individuals. The plasma levels of chemokines and their receptors (CCL-5, CXCR-5, CXCL-12 and CXCR-4), as well as IL-6, were assessed by ELISA.

Results: There was an increase in the CXCL-12 and CCL-5 levels in women and men with the PTSD versus the control group. Also, increased levels of IL-6 and the receptors CXCR-4, CCR-5 were observed in women and men with PTSD. The levels of CXCL-12 and CCL-5 chemokines, as well as CCR-5 and CXCR4 receptors were higher in women than in men. The results of this study indicate a need for assessment of the CCL-5 and CXCL-12 chemokine levels, as they are likely markers of PTSD.

Conclusions: Measurement of the concentrations of chemokines, chemokine receptors and IL-6 in women and men with PTSD along with concomittant APD may be useful for early detection of mental disorders.

Keywords: Chemokines; Personality disorders; Posttraumatic stress disorder.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemokine CCL5 / blood*
  • Chemokine CXCL12 / blood*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-6 / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Personality Disorders / blood*
  • Personality Disorders / complications
  • Receptors, CCR5 / blood*
  • Receptors, CXCR4 / blood*
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / blood*
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / complications
  • Young Adult


  • CXCL12 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL5
  • Chemokine CXCL12
  • Interleukin-6
  • Receptors, CCR5
  • Receptors, CXCR4