Background: Obesity has been associated with increased risk of perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI). We aim to establish the incidence of AKI among patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery and identify potential risk factors.
Methods: Records of 1230 patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery in a tertiary centre from 1 December 2009 to 31 January 2014 were retrospectively studied. AKI diagnosis was made by comparing the baseline and post-operative serum creatinine to determine the presence of predefined significant change based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition. Univariate analyses were performed to determine significant clinical factors, and multiple logistic regression analysis was subsequently done to determine independent predictors of AKI.
Results: Thirty-five (2.9 %) patients developed AKI during the first 72 h post-surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed impaired renal function (OR 10.429, 95 % CI 3.560 to 30.552), use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (OR 3.038, 95 % CI 1.352 to 6.824), and body mass index (OR 1.048, 95 % CI 1.005 to 1.093) as independent predictors of perioperative acute kidney injury in the obese patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery.
Conclusions: We found that the incidence of perioperative AKI among patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery is at 2.9 %. Impaired renal function, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers and raised body mass index were found to be independent predictors of AKI. Patients with these risk factors could be considered at risk for developing perioperative AKI, and extra perioperative vigilance should be undertaken.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury; Bariatric surgery; Morbid obesity; Perioperative period; Renal failure.