Evaluation of the Spot Vision Screener in Young Children in Costa Rica

J AAPOS. 2015 Oct;19(5):441-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2015.08.002.


Background: The Spot Vision Screener has demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in the pediatric ophthalmology clinic setting. We sought to evaluate the updated Spot (version 2.0.16) in a general pediatric population through a collaboration of the Storm Eye Institute of the Medical University of South Carolina, the Clinica Dr Clorito Picado, and National Children's Hospital of Costa Rica. We compared results of screening with the Spot and pediatric ophthalmologic examination and determined sensitivity and specificity of the Spot in detecting amblyogenic risk factors (ARFs) according to the 2013 AAPOS Vision Screening Committee guidelines for automated vision screeners.

Methods: Children were screened with the Spot followed by a pediatric ophthalmologic examination. Cycloplegic refraction and motility findings were analyzed by age group to determine ARFs.

Results: A total of 219 subjects, averaging 60 months of age (range, 20-119 mo) were included. The prevalence of ARFs in our population was 12.3% (27/219). The most common risk factor was astigmatism, with a prevalence of 8.7% (19/219). The Spot referred 43 children (19.6%). Sensitivity of the Spot was 92.6%; specificity, 90.6%. The positive predictive value was 58.1%; the negative predictive value, 98.9%.

Conclusions: The Spot demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in detecting amblyopia risk factors in this general pediatric population.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amblyopia / diagnosis*
  • Amblyopia / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Costa Rica / epidemiology
  • False Positive Reactions
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retinoscopy
  • Risk Factors
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Vision Screening / instrumentation*