In 2014, autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) was removed from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines as a recommended treatment for patients with intermediate-risk AML in first complete remission (CR1). We reviewed the outcomes of all patients with intermediate-risk AML treated with autoHCT in CR1 at our institution. Of 334 patients who underwent autoHCT for AML between 1988 and 2013, 133 patients with intermediate-risk AML in CR1 were identified. Cytogenetics were diploid in 97 (73%). With a median follow-up of 4.1 years (range 0.1-17), median overall survival (OS) is 6.7 years; at 5 years post-transplant, 59% of patients remain alive and 43% remain relapse-free. Forty-eight percent of relapsing patients proceeded to salvage alloHCT. Our findings demonstrate that nearly half of patients with intermediate-risk AML in CR1 achieve sustained remissions, and that salvage alloHCT is feasible in those who relapse. AutoHCT therefore remains a reasonable option for intermediate-risk patients with AML in CR1.
Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; autologous transplantation; outcomes.