Acute effects of grayanotoxin in rhododendron honey on kidney functions in rats

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Feb;23(4):3300-9. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-5534-z. Epub 2015 Oct 21.


The aim of the study is to evaluate the acute biochemical and histological changes in rat kidneys after treatment with grayanotoxin (GTX) of rhododendron honey (RH). A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into five groups of 12 rats each, one being a control group (group 1) and group 2 was treated with 0.015 mg/kg/bw of GTX standard preparation via intraperitoneal injection. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were given RH at doses of 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 g/kg/bw, respectively, via oral gavage. Compared to the control group, significant increases were observed in glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels of the GTX-injected groups after 1 h. However, in low dose RH group, such an increase was not observed and had a normal appearance histologically. Therefore, low dose (1 g/kg/bw) of RH produces no acute adverse effects on renal functions of rats.

Keywords: Biochemical parameters; Gryanotoxin; Mad honey poisoning; Rat; Rhododendron honey.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diterpenes / toxicity*
  • Female
  • Honey / analysis*
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Rhododendron / chemistry
  • Rhododendron / toxicity*


  • Diterpenes
  • Creatinine
  • grayanotoxin I