A gathering body of evidence has repeatedly revealed associations between indoor fungi and initiation, promotion, and exacerbation of allergic respiratory disease. The relationship between the exposure and outcome are complicated by the difficulties in measuring both exposure and outcome, the multifactorial nature of the disease, and the wide range of potential confounders. New technologies are becoming available that may enable better measurement of exposure and tighter case definitions so as to build more confidence in the associations discovered. The growing strength of the evidence base will aid the design of future public health interventions and generate new hypotheses on the cause of the rapid increase in allergic respiratory disease prevalence.
Keywords: Allergic respiratory disease; Allergy; Asthma; Environment and allergy; Epidemiology; Fungi; Indoor fungal exposure.