A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

Med Biol Eng Comput. 2016 Sep;54(9):1383-98. doi: 10.1007/s11517-015-1406-4. Epub 2015 Oct 22.


We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

Keywords: Compartmental model; Incretins; Nonlinear optimization; Oral glucose tolerance test; Parameter estimation; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Incretins / metabolism
  • Male
  • Models, Biological*
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Reproducibility of Results


  • Blood Glucose
  • Incretins
  • Glucose