Sequential changes in Rotterdam CT scores related to outcomes for patients with traumatic brain injury who undergo decompressive craniectomy

J Neurosurg. 2016 Jun;124(6):1640-5. doi: 10.3171/2015.4.JNS142760. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Abstract

OBJECT Rotterdam CT scoring is a CT classification system for grouping patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on multiple CT characteristics. This retrospective study aimed to determine the relationship between initial or preoperative Rotterdam CT scores and TBI prognosis after decompressive craniectomy (DC). METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all consecutive patients who underwent DC for nonpenetrating TBI in 2 hospitals from January 2006 through December 2013. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to determine the relationship between initial or preoperative Rotterdam CT scores and mortality at 30 days or Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at least 3 months after the time of injury. Unfavorable outcomes were GOS Scores 1-3 and favorable outcomes were GOS Scores 4 and 5. RESULTS A total of 48 cases involving patients who underwent DC for TBI were included in this study. Univariate analyses showed that initial Rotterdam CT scores were significantly associated with mortality and both initial and preoperative Rotterdam CT scores were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for established predictors of TBI outcomes showed that initial Rotterdam CT scores were significantly associated with mortality (OR 4.98, 95% CI 1.40-17.78, p = 0.01) and unfavorable outcomes (OR 3.66, 95% CI 1.29-10.39, p = 0.02) and preoperative Rotterdam CT scores were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes (OR 15.29, 95% CI 2.50-93.53, p = 0.003). ROC curve analyses showed cutoff values for the initial Rotterdam CT score of 5.5 (area under the curve [AUC] 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.90, p = 0.009, sensitivity 50.0%, and specificity 88.2%) for mortality and 4.5 (AUC 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.86, p = 0.02, sensitivity 62.5%, and specificity 75.0%) for an unfavorable outcome and a cutoff value for the preoperative Rotterdam CT score of 4.5 (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.94, p < 0.001, sensitivity 90.6%, and specificity 56.2%) for an unfavorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS Assessment of changes in Rotterdam CT scores over time may serve as a prognostic indicator in TBI and can help determine which patients require DC.

Keywords: AUC = area under the curve; DC = decompressive craniectomy; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; GOS = Glasgow Outcome Scale; Glasgow Outcome Scale; ICP = intracranial pressure; ROC = receiver operating characteristic; Rotterdam CT score; TBI = traumatic brain injury; decompressive craniectomy; mortality; traumatic brain injury.

MeSH terms

  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / diagnosis
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / diagnostic imaging*
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / surgery*
  • Decompressive Craniectomy* / methods
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glasgow Outcome Scale
  • Humans
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • ROC Curve
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index*
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods*
  • Treatment Outcome