Obesity, Acute Kidney Injury, and Mortality in Critical Illness

Crit Care Med. 2016 Feb;44(2):328-34. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001398.

Abstract

Objectives: Although obesity is associated with risk for chronic kidney disease and improved survival, less is known about the associations of obesity with risk of acute kidney injury and post acute kidney injury mortality.

Design: In a single-center inception cohort of almost 15,000 critically ill patients, we evaluated the association of obesity with acute kidney injury and acute kidney injury severity, as well as in-hospital and 1-year survival. Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative criteria.

Measurements and main results: The acute kidney injury prevalence rates for normal, overweight, class I, II, and III obesity were 18.6%, 20.6%, 22.5%, 24.3%, and 24.0%, respectively, and the adjusted odds ratios of acute kidney injury were 1.18 (95% CI, 1.06-1.31), 1.35 (1.19-1.53), 1.47 (1.25-1.73), and 1.59 (1.31-1.87) when compared with normal weight, respectively. Each 5-kg/m² increase in body mass index was associated with a 10% risk (95% CI, 1.06-1.24; p < 0.001) of more severe acute kidney injury. Within-hospital and 1-year survival rates associated with the acute kidney injury episodes were similar across body mass index categories.

Conclusion: Obesity is a risk factor for acute kidney injury, which is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / mortality*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Body Mass Index
  • Comorbidity
  • Continental Population Groups
  • Critical Illness / mortality*
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units / statistics & numerical data*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / mortality*
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index