Despite their sessile lifestyle, seed plants are able to utilize differential growth rates to move their organs in response to their environment. Asymmetrical growth is the cause for the formation and maintenance of the apical hook-a structure of dicotyledonous plants shaped by the bended hypocotyl that eases the penetration through the covering soil. As predicted by the Cholodny-Went theory, the cause for differential growth is the unequal distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The PIN-FORMED proteins transport auxin from cell-to-cell and control the distribution of auxin in the plant. Their localization and activity are regulated by two subfamilies of AGCVIII protein kinases: the D6 PROTEIN KINASEs as well as PINOID and its two closely related WAG kinases. This mini-review focuses on the regulatory mechanism of these AGCVIII kinases as well as their role in apical hook development of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Keywords: AGCVIII kinases; PIN activity; PIN polarity; apical hook development; auxin transport.