Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion During Pregnancy in Women with Complicated Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated with Better Glycemic Control but Not with Improvement in Pregnancy Outcomes

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2016 Mar;18(3):144-50. doi: 10.1089/dia.2015.0165. Epub 2015 Oct 26.


Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes of women with type 1 diabetes managed on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) compared with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI).

Subjects and methods: Pregnancy outcomes were assessed retrospectively in women with type 1 diabetes who were patients of the Diabetes Clinic of North Karelia Hospital (Joensuu, Finland) between 2000 and 2012. The medical records of 72 women experiencing 135 pregnancies and data of their infants were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: In total, 48 pregnancies were treated with CSII and 87 with MDI. Women on CSII treatment were older and had more diabetes complications compared with women on MDI. No significant differences in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were observed between the CSII and MDI groups before or during pregnancy. Maternal or fetal outcomes did not differ between the treatment groups. However, among women with complicated diabetes, HbA1c levels were significantly lower in the CSII group until the second trimester (prepregnancy, 7.22% vs. 8.14%, respectively [P = 0.034]; first trimester, 6.85% vs. 7.87% [P < 0.001]; second trimester, 6.41% vs. 7.03% [P = 0.029]) without an increased rate of maternal hypoglycemia.

Conclusions: Pregnancy outcomes were similar regardless of insulin treatment modality. Although using an insulin pump did not result in improvement of pregnancy outcomes, it allowed for better glycemic control in pregnancies of women with complicated diabetes. Therefore, it is worth considering in high-risk T1DM pregnancies, especially if good glycemic control is not achieved otherwise.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Finland / epidemiology
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / epidemiology
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Hypoglycemia / chemically induced
  • Hypoglycemia / epidemiology
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / adverse effects
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Male
  • Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / blood
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / drug therapy*
  • Pregnancy, High-Risk*
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human