Single spot albumin to creatinine ratio: A simple marker of long-term prognosis in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

Cardiol J. 2016;23(3):236-41. doi: 10.5603/CJ.a2015.0075. Epub 2015 Oct 27.


Background: Microalbuminuria is a known risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality suggesting that it should be a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) is an available and rapid test for microalbuminuria determination, with a high correlation with the 24-h urine collection method. There is no prospective study that evaluates the prognostic value of ACR in patients with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). The purpose of our study was to detect the long-term prognostic value of ACR in patients with NSTE-ACS.

Methods: Albumin to creatinine ratio was estimated in 700 patients with NSTE-ACS at admission. Median follow-up time was 18 months. The best cutoff point of ACR for death or acute myocardial infarction was 20 mg/g. Twenty-two percent of patients had elevated ACR.

Results: By multivariable Cox regression analysis, ACR was an independent predictor of the clinical endpoint: odds ratio 5.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2-16), log-rank 2 p < 0.0001 in a model including age > 65 years, female gender, diabetes mellitus, creatinine clearance, glucose levels at admission, elevated cardiac markers (troponin T/CK-MB) and ST segment depression. The addition of ACR significantly improved GRACE score C-statistics from 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.83) to 0.77 (95% CI 0.65-0.88), SE 0.04, 2 p = 0.03, with a good calibration with both models.

Conclusions: Albumin to creatinine ratio is an independent and accessible predictor of long-term adverse outcomes in NSTE-ACS, providing additional value for risk stratification.

Keywords: acute coronary syndromes; microalbuminuria; prognosis.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / complications
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / metabolism*
  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / complications
  • Albuminuria / diagnosis
  • Albuminuria / urine*
  • Argentina / epidemiology
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Creatinine / urine*
  • Electrocardiography*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Morbidity / trends
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Survival Rate / trends
  • Time Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Creatinine