Long-term Follow-up After Interstitial Laser Thermotherapy of Breast Cancer

Anticancer Res. 2015 Nov;35(11):6147-52.


Aim: To review the effect of immunological changes induced by interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILT) on long-term outcome of patients with breast cancer.

Patients and methods: Twenty-four patients with invasive breast cancer were treated with ILT followed by standard surgical excision. Immunohistological reactions on immunocompetent cells were performed on specimens obtained before and after ILT. Follow-up time was 116 (range=91-136) months.

Results: Significant prognostic factors were histologically-positive axillary lymph nodes and Ki67 positivity. ILT increased cytotoxic T (CD8(+)) lymphocytes within the tumor and mature dendritic cells (CD83(+)) and reduced the number of T-regulatory cells (Treg) CD25(+)/Forkhead box p3(+) (FOXP3(+)) lymphocytes in regional lymph nodes. These changes did not correlate with prognosis. The number of CD8(+) cells within the tumor, both before and after treatment, was significantly higher in patients with recurrence than in those without recurrence (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Patients with recurrent disease had a lower number of CD57(+) cells in tumor-free lymph nodes than did patients without recurrence (p<0.05).

Conclusion: ILT did not have any long-term adverse effects. The clinical impact of the supposedly favourable immune changes after ILT should be examined in a larger patient population.

Keywords: Breast cancer; laser thermotherapy; minimally invasive treatment; therapy; thermal treatment; tumor immunology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Breast Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Breast Neoplasms / therapy*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / immunology
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary
  • Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / immunology
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / therapy
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / pathology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / methods*
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Laser Therapy / methods*
  • Lymph Nodes / immunology*
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / immunology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / pathology
  • Time Factors


  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • ERBB2 protein, human
  • Receptor, ErbB-2