Potential of Newborn and Adult Stem Cells for the Production of Vascular Constructs Using the Living Tissue Sheet Approach

Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:168294. doi: 10.1155/2015/168294. Epub 2015 Oct 4.

Abstract

Bypass surgeries using native vessels rely on the availability of autologous veins and arteries. An alternative to those vessels could be tissue-engineered vascular constructs made by self-organized tissue sheets. This paper intends to evaluate the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from two different sources: (1) bone marrow-derived MSCs and (2) umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs. When cultured in vitro, a proportion of those cells differentiated into smooth muscle cell- (SMC-) like cells and expressed contraction associated proteins. Moreover, these cells assembled into manipulable tissue sheets when cultured in presence of ascorbic acid. Tubular vessels were then produced by rolling those tissue sheets on a mandrel. The architecture, contractility, and mechanical resistance of reconstructed vessels were compared with tissue-engineered media and adventitia produced from SMCs and dermal fibroblasts, respectively. Histology revealed a collagenous extracellular matrix and the contractile responses measured for these vessels were stronger than dermal fibroblasts derived constructs although weaker than SMCs-derived constructs. The burst pressure of bone marrow-derived vessels was higher than SMCs-derived ones. These results reinforce the versatility of the self-organization approach since they demonstrate that it is possible to recapitulate a contractile media layer from MSCs without the need of exogenous scaffolding material.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Adult Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Adult Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Bioprosthesis
  • Blood Vessels / cytology
  • Blood Vessels / growth & development*
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / instrumentation
  • Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood / cytology
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation / instrumentation
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation / methods
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Stem Cell Transplantation / instrumentation
  • Tissue Engineering / instrumentation
  • Tissue Engineering / methods
  • Tissue Scaffolds*