Submersion cases in The Netherlands

Ann Emerg Med. 1989 Apr;18(4):366-73. doi: 10.1016/s0196-0644(89)80571-2.


Epidemiologic analysis of submersion cases admitted to the intensive and respiratory care unit showed that several interrelated factors preceded submersion. Accidental submersion and traffic accidents represented one third of the causes of submersion. Other relevant causes were illness (29.9%), psychosocial causes (20.1%), alcohol (18.1%), and suicide (9.1%). Age distribution, gender, and mortality rate were different in each group. Young age, submersion during recreational activities, summer months, and normothermia were epidemiologic factors with a favorable prognosis. Our data were compared with national data. WHO-ICD code 994.1 (drowning and nonfatal submersion) is the best entrance for epidemiologic analysis. Five hundred twenty deaths and 690 hospital admissions due to submersion occur in The Netherlands each year. About 460 victims die before they reach a hospital.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Accidents
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Drowning / epidemiology*
  • Drowning / mortality
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immersion*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Near Drowning / therapy
  • Netherlands
  • Prognosis
  • Suicide