3C syndrome: third occurrence of cranio-cerebello-cardiac dysplasia (Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome)

Clin Genet. 1989 Mar;35(3):205-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.1989.tb02929.x.


We report a child with an unusual pattern of malformations: severe delay in bone maturation, wide fontanelles and facial dysmorphism (evoking cleidocranial dysplasia), relative macroencephaly with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, hypertelorism, skeletal abnormalities (1st ribs aplasia, multifocal sternal ossification centers, thin bones), septal defect, muscular waste, hypotonia and developmental delay. Most of these features have been reported previously by Ritscher, Schinzel et al. in two sibs, who suffered more severe cerebellar malformations (Dandy-Walker cyst or vermis aplasia). We propose 3C syndrome as an easy acronym for this Cranio-Cerebello-Cardiac dysplasia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple* / diagnostic imaging
  • Bone Diseases, Developmental* / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebellum / abnormalities*
  • Cranial Sutures / abnormalities*
  • Female
  • Heart Septal Defects*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Muscle Hypotonia / diagnostic imaging
  • Pregnancy
  • Radiography
  • Ribs / abnormalities
  • Skull / abnormalities*
  • Syndrome
  • Terminology as Topic