The Transdural Course of Radicular Spinal Cord Veins--A Microangiographical and Microscopical Study

Clin Neuroradiol. 2015 Dec;25(4):361-9. doi: 10.1007/s00062-015-0476-x. Epub 2015 Oct 28.


Purpose: This study focuses on the following questions: What are the morphological features at the transdural course of radiculomedullary veins? How are these short transdural segments that may harbour pathological arteriovenous shunts connected to the internal vertebral venous plexus? Is the conception of a reflux-impeding mechanism at the transdural segment indispensable and convincing?

Methods: A total of 102 radiculospinal veins were studied microscopically at various levels of the spinal canal using serial paraffin and semi-thin sections. In addition, 26 vessels were investigated microangiographically following orthograde (12) or attempted retrograde (14) opacification of the intradural venous segment with barium sulphate. After paraplast-embedding, contact-microradiographs were taken using high-resolution spectroscopic plates.

Results: At their transdural course, the veins showed narrowing of their lumen accompanied by changes in the vessel wall composition and a tortuous course. Two structurally distinct arrangements of the transdural segment could be identified: A slit type was seen in 60% of the veins studied and a bulge- or nodular type was seen in 35% of the veins. In total, 5% of cases could not be assigned to either one of these types. Reflux to radicular veins from the outside of the dura mater could be produced in 2 out of 14 specimens. The extradural venous plexus, which primarily receives the radicular vein, was composed more frequently of lacunar spaces rather than plexiform blood vessel convolutions. Rare observations were fibrotic, blind ending radiculomedullary veins and continuation of a distinct venous blood vessel after crossing the dura.

Conclusions: Reflux from the epidural plexus to radicular veins is not reliably stopped at the dural level and possibly physiological. Different arrangements of the transdural course of the veins appear to be at least appropriate to modulate flow. The purpose for two different types of radicular vein exit is unclear. The clinical impact of disturbed reflux-control is uncertain, which is in stark contrast to the severe consequences resulting from dural arteriovenous shunts. The functional role of the probably predominant epidural venous plexus for the spinal cord blood circulation remains poorly understood.

Keywords: Internal vertebral venous plexus; Radiculomedullary veins; Reflux-impeding arrangements; Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas; Transdural course of veins; Venous drainage of the spinal cord; X-ray microangiography.

MeSH terms

  • Dura Mater / cytology*
  • Dura Mater / diagnostic imaging*
  • Humans
  • Phlebography / methods*
  • Spinal Cord / blood supply*
  • Spinal Cord / cytology
  • Spinal Cord / diagnostic imaging
  • Veins / cytology*