Aims: Diabetic kidney disease independently predicts cardiovascular disease and premature death. We examined the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as an estimated GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) and quality of care in a cross-sectional survey of adults (age ≥ 18 years) with Type 2 diabetes across Asia.
Methods: The Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation programme is a disease-management programme implemented using an electronic portal that systematically captures clinical characteristics of all patients enrolled. Between July 2007 and December 2012, data on 28 110 consecutively enrolled patients (China: 3415, Hong Kong: 15 196, India: 3714, Korea: 1651, Philippines: 3364, Vietnam: 692, Taiwan: 78) were analysed.
Results: In this survey, 15.9% of patients had CKD, 25.0% had microalbuminuria and 12.5% had macroalbuminuria. Patients with CKD were less likely to achieve HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol (7.0%) (36.0% vs. 42.3%) and blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg (20.8% vs. 35.3%), and were more likely to have retinopathy (26.2% vs. 8.7%), sensory neuropathy (29.0% vs. 7.7%), cardiovascular disease (26.6% vs. 8.7%) and self-reported hypoglycaemia (18.9% vs. 8.2%). Despite high frequencies of albuminuria (74.8%) and dyslipidaemia (93.0%) among CKD patients, only 49.0% were using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and 53.6% were on statins. On logistic regression, old age, male gender, tobacco use, long disease duration, high HbA1c , blood pressure and BMI, and low LDL cholesterol were independently associated with CKD (all P < 0.05).
Conclusions: The poor control of risk factors, suboptimal use of organ-protective drugs and high frequencies of hypoglycaemia highlight major treatment gaps in patients with diabetic kidney disease in Asia.
© 2015 Diabetes UK.