Early serum markers of pre-eclampsia: are we stepping forward?

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Sep;29(18):3019-23. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1113522. Epub 2015 Nov 23.


Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a multisystemic disorder of human pregnancy, clinically characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, oedema and platelet aggregation; the syndrome includes vasoconstriction, resulting in maternal hypertension, reduced uterine blood flow, impairment of placenta-vascular endothelial integrity with increased permeability and activation of the coagulation cascade. The aetiopathogenesis of PE remains still unknown, although the central role played by the placenta seems to be crucial. To date, increasing efforts are trying to create an unique and robust biochemical pattern in serum to predict PE. Although the recent data, the definition of an early biochemical pattern in serum to predict PE is still far from reaching the final shape. This stalemate could be due, at least in part, to lack of robust and reproducible methodology (inclusion/exclusion criteria during enrolment, period and type of sample collection, type of sample analysis and interpretation of results) across the different studies. Considering these assumptions, the aim of the current paper is to review the available data about early serum markers of PE.

Keywords: First trimester; pre-eclampsia; serum markers.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / analysis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Placenta / physiopathology
  • Pre-Eclampsia / blood
  • Pre-Eclampsia / diagnosis*
  • Pre-Eclampsia / etiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Reproducibility of Results


  • Biomarkers