High-Dose Viscum album Extract Treatment in the Prevention of Recurrent Bladder Cancer: A Retrospective Case Series

Perm J. Fall 2015;19(4):76-83. doi: 10.7812/TPP/15-018.

Abstract

Introduction: Viscum album extract (European mistletoe), containing immuno-active compounds with dose-dependent cytotoxic activity, is being used as an adjuvant cancer treatment in Europe. Few studies have yet been done with high-dose, fever-inducing Viscum album treatment.

Objective: To explore whether subcutaneous injections of high-dose Viscum album have a preventive effect on risk of recurrence of bladder cancer.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the case records of patients with resectable bladder cancer who underwent initiation of high-dose Viscum album treatment at our clinic between January 2006 and December 2012.

Main outcome measures: We calculated tumor recurrence and progression risk and explored case records to assess whether treatment had a likely, possible, or unlikely beneficial effect.

Results: Eight patients were identified, 7 of whom had nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer and 1 with muscle-invasive cancer. Four patients had frequently recurring tumors before treatment. Among the 8 patients, 28 episodes of recurrence were observed. Median tumor-free follow-up duration was 48.5 months. High-dose Viscum album showed a possible beneficial effect in 5 of 8 patients, could not be assessed in 2 patients, and had an uncertain effect in 1 patient. No tumor progression was observed. Treatment was generally well tolerated and no patient stopped treatment because of side effects.

Conclusion: High-dose Viscum album treatment may have interrupted frequently recurring tumors in individual patients with recurrent bladder cancer. Prospective studies are needed to assess whether this treatment offers an additional, bladder-sparing preventive option for patients with intermediate- to high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer.. Treatment was generally well tolerated and no patient stopped treatment because of side effects.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Viscum album*

Substances

  • Plant Extracts