Prospective associations between sedentary time, physical activity, fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes

Diabetologia. 2016 Jan;59(1):110-120. doi: 10.1007/s00125-015-3756-8. Epub 2015 Oct 30.


Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to examine the prospective associations between objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), sedentary time, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiometabolic risk factors over 4 years in individuals with recently diagnosed diabetes.

Methods: Among 308 adults (mean age 61.0 [SD 7.2] years; 34% female) with type 2 diabetes from the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION)-Plus study, we measured physical activity using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to examine the associations between baseline PAEE, sedentary time, MVPA, CRF and cardiometabolic risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic risk (CCMR) at follow-up, and change in these exposures and change in CCMR and its components over 4 years of follow-up.

Results: Individuals who increased their PAEE between baseline and follow-up had a greater reduction in waist circumference (-2.84 cm, 95% CI -4.84, -0.85) and CCMR (-0.17, 95% CI -0.29, -0.04) compared with those who decreased their PAEE. Compared with individuals who decreased their sedentary time, those who increased their sedentary time had a greater increase in waist circumference (3.20 cm, 95% CI 0.84, 5.56). Increases in MVPA were associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure (-6.30 mmHg, 95% CI -11.58, -1.03), while increases in CRF were associated with reductions in CCMR (-0.23, 95% CI -0.40,-0.05) and waist circumference (-3.79 cm, 95% CI -6.62, -0.96). Baseline measures were generally not predictive of cardiometabolic risk at follow-up.

Conclusions/interpretation: Encouraging people with recently diagnosed diabetes to increase their physical activity and decrease their sedentary time may have beneficial effects on their waist circumference, blood pressure and CCMR.

Keywords: Cardiometabolic; Cardiovascular; Diabetes; Fitness; Intervention; Physical activity; Prospective; Sedentary.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Physical Fitness*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Sedentary Behavior*
  • Waist Circumference