Scope: The aim of the study was to systematically review and analyze results from observational studies on coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption and association or risk of depression.
Methods and results: Embase and PubMed databases were searched from inception to June 2015 for observational studies reporting the odds ratios or relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of depression by coffee/tea/caffeine consumption. Random effects models, subgroup analyses, and dose-response analyses were performed. Twelve studies with 23 datasets were included in the meta-analysis, accounting for a total of 346 913 individuals and 8146 cases of depression. Compared to individuals with lower coffee consumption, those with higher intakes had pooled RR of depression of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.91). Dose-response effect suggests a nonlinear J-shaped relation between coffee consumption and risk of depression with a peak of protective effect for 400 mL/day. A borderline nonsignificant association between tea consumption and risk of depression was found (RR 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.01), while significant results were found only for analysis of prospective studies regarding caffeine consumption (RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.93).
Conclusion: This study suggests a protective effect of coffee and, partially, of tea and caffeine on risk of depression.
Keywords: Caffeine; Coffee; Depression; Meta-analysis; Tea.
© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.