Experimental Models of C. albicans-Streptococcal Co-infection

Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1356:137-52. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3052-4_10.


Interactions of C. albicans with co-colonizing bacteria at mucosal sites can be synergistic or antagonistic in disease development, depending on the bacterial species and mucosal site. Mitis group streptococci and C. albicans colonize the oral mucosa of the majority of healthy individuals. These streptococci have been termed "accessory pathogens," defined by their ability to initiate multispecies biofilm assembly and promote the virulence of the mixed bacterial biofilm community in which they participate. To demonstrate whether interactions with Mitis group streptococci limit or promote the potential of C. albicans to become an opportunistic pathogen, in vitro and in vivo co-infection models are needed. Here, we describe two C. albicans-streptococcal co-infection models: an organotypic oral mucosal tissue model that incorporates salivary flow and a mouse model of oral co-infection that requires reduced levels of immunosuppression compared to single fungal infection.

Keywords: Candida albicans; Flow cells; Mouse model; Oral infection; Organotypic culture; Streptococcus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biofilms
  • Candida albicans*
  • Candidiasis / microbiology*
  • Cell Line
  • Coinfection*
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Mice
  • Mouth Mucosa / microbiology
  • Streptococcal Infections / microbiology*
  • Streptococcus*