Comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Respir Investig. 2015 Nov;53(6):249-58. doi: 10.1016/j.resinv.2015.02.004. Epub 2015 Apr 4.


Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) often experience comorbid conditions. The most common comorbidities that have been associated with COPD include cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, metabolic disorder, osteoporosis, anxiety and depression, skeletal muscle dysfunction, cachexia, gastrointestinal diseases, and other respiratory conditions. Not only are comorbidities common but they also considerably influence disease prognosis and patients׳ health status, and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, perusal of literature indicates that little has been done so far to effectively assess, manage, and treat comorbidities in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to comprehensively narrate the comorbid conditions that often coexist with COPD, along with their reported prevalence and their significant impacts in the disease management of COPD. A perspective on integrated disease management approaches for COPD is also discussed.

Keywords: COPD; Comorbidities; Disease management; Disease prevalence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology
  • Comorbidity
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Musculoskeletal Diseases / epidemiology
  • Osteoporosis / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / epidemiology*
  • Respiration Disorders / epidemiology