Objective: First, to study how markers of matrix metabolism, inflammation markers, and adipokines relate to (superior) cam deformity and (possible) cam impingement of the hip. Second, to investigate whether they can identify subjects with cam deformity that are at risk of future hip osteoarthritis (OA).
Method: In a cohort of 1002 subjects (CHECK), (superior) cam deformity was defined by an alpha angle >60° on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs and (possible) cam impingement by a cam deformity together with internal hip rotation ≤20°. Hip OA at 5-year follow-up was defined by Kellgren and Lawrence grade ≥2 or total hip replacement.
Results: Subjects with (superior) cam deformity and (possible) cam impingement showed lower levels of bone turnover markers (uCTX-I, uNTX-I, sPINP, sOC) than those without. Cam deformity was positively associated with future hip OA, but associations were weaker at high levels of bone turnover. sCOMP and sHA levels were higher in subjects with cam deformity, while other cartilage and synovium markers were not. Some markers of inflammation (pLeptin, pAdiponectin, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were lower in presence of cam deformity and cam impingement, but high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was not. Most associations depended largely on gender differences.
Conclusion: Bone metabolism may be relevant in the pathogenesis of (superior) cam deformity and in the development of (superior) cam deformity into hip OA. Subjects with cam deformity and cam impingement surprisingly showed lower levels of inflammation markers and adipokines. Associations of cartilage turnover markers with cam deformity and cam impingement were less obvious.
Keywords: Adipokines; Biomarkers; Cam deformity; Cam impingement; Hip osteoarthritis; Inflammation.
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