Quantification of Sorafenib in Human Serum by Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Biol Pharm Bull. 2015;38(11):1788-93. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b15-00484.


The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has been used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Here we have demonstrated the production of the first specific antibody against sorafenib. Anti-sorafenib serum was obtained by immunizing mice with an antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin and carboxylic modified 4-(4-aminophenoxy)-N-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxamide (AMPC) using the N-succinimidyl ester method. Enzyme labeling of sorafenib with horseradish peroxidase was similarly performed using carboxylic modified AMPC. A simple competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for sorafenib was developed using the principle of direct competition between sorafenib and the enzyme marker for anti-sorafenib antibody, which had been adsorbed by the plastic surface of a microtiter plate. Serum sorafenib concentrations lower than 0.04 µg/mL were reproducibly measurable using the ELISA. This ELISA was specific to sorafenib and showed very slight cross-reactivity (2.5%) with a major metabolite, sorafenib N-oxide. The values of serum sorafenib levels from 32 patients measured by this ELISA were comparable with those measured by HPLC, and there was a strong correlation between the values determined by the two methods (Y=1.016X-0.137, r=0.979). The specificity and sensitivity of the ELISA for sorafenib should provide a valuable new tool for use in therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of sorafenib.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies / blood*
  • Antigens / immunology
  • Antineoplastic Agents / blood*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / immunology
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Drug Monitoring
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods*
  • Female
  • Horseradish Peroxidase / immunology
  • Humans
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives*
  • Niacinamide / blood
  • Niacinamide / immunology
  • Niacinamide / pharmacokinetics
  • Phenylurea Compounds / blood*
  • Phenylurea Compounds / immunology
  • Phenylurea Compounds / pharmacokinetics
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine / immunology
  • Sorafenib


  • Antibodies
  • Antigens
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Phenylurea Compounds
  • Niacinamide
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine
  • Sorafenib
  • Horseradish Peroxidase