The mutational landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma

Clin Mol Hepatol. 2015 Sep;21(3):220-9. doi: 10.3350/cmh.2015.21.3.220. Epub 2015 Sep 30.


The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex process, and HCC arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to changes in the genomic landscape. Current advances in genomic technologies have revolutionized the search for genetic alterations in cancer genomes. Recent studies in which all coding exons in HCC were sequenced have shed new light on the genomic landscape of this malignant disease. Catalogues of these somatic mutations and systematic analysis of catalogued mutations will lead us to uncover candidate HCC driver genes, although further functional validation is needed to determine whether these genes play a causal role in the development of HCC. This review provides an overview of previously known oncogenes and new oncogene candidates in HCC that were uncovered from recent exome or whole-genome sequencing studies. This knowledge provides direction for future personalized treatment approaches for patients with HCC.

Keywords: Cancer genomics; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Somatic mutations; TERT; TP53.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • Mutation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Precision Medicine
  • Telomerase / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Telomerase