Sex and Gender Impact Immune Responses to Vaccines Among the Elderly

Physiology (Bethesda). 2015 Nov;30(6):408-16. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00035.2015.


In response to the recommended vaccines in older-aged individuals, sex differences occur in response to those that protect against influenza, tetanus, pertussis, shingles, and pneumococcal infections. The efficacy of vaccines recommended for older-aged adults is consistently greater for females than for males. Gender differences as well as biological sex differences can influence vaccine uptake, responses, and outcome in older-aged individuals, which should influence guidelines, formulations, and dosage recommendations for vaccines in the elderly.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aging / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Drug Dosage Calculations
  • Female
  • Health Status Disparities*
  • Humans
  • Immune System / drug effects*
  • Immune System / immunology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Vaccines / immunology
  • Young Adult


  • Vaccines